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avatar-mom:

The Harvard Computers was a group of woman who were hired by the director of the Harvard Observatory, Edward Charles Pickering. From 1877 to 1919 he hired around 80 women to serve as human “computers”. They were hired instead of men to process large amounts of astronomical data. Some say these women were chosen because they could be hired for far less than their male equivalents. Whatever the reasoning, one thing is very true… the work of these women often goes unappreciated.

"Edward Charles Pickering (director of the Harvard Observatory from 1877 to 1919) decided to hire women as skilled workers to process astronomical data. Among these women were Williamina Fleming, Annie Jump Cannon, Henrietta Swan Leavitt and Antonia Maury. This staff came to be known as "Pickering’s Harem" or, more respectfully, as the Harvard Computers. This was an example of what has been identified as the "harem effect" in the history and sociology of science.

It seems that several factors contributed to Pickering’s decision to hire women instead of men. Among them was the fact that men were paid much more than women, so he could employ more staff with the same budget.This was relevant in a time when the amount of astronomical data was surpassing the capacity of the Observatories to process it.

The first woman hired was Williamina Fleming, who was working as a maid for Pickering. It seems that Pickering was increasingly frustrated with his male assistants and declared that even his maid could do a better job. Apparently he was not mistaken, as Fleming undertook her assigned chores efficiently. When the Harvard Observatory received in 1886 a generous donation from the widow of Henry Draper, Pickering decided to hire more female staff and put Fleming in charge of them.

As a result of the work of the women “computers”, Pickering published in 1890 the first Henry Draper Catalog, a catalog with more than 10,000 stars classified according to their spectrum. Pickering decided to hire Antonia Maury, a graduate from Vassar College, to reclassify some of the stars. Maury decided to go further and improved and redesigned the system of classification. It was published in 1897, but was largely ignored. Afterwards Pickering decided to hire Cannon, a graduate of Wellesley College, to classify the southern stars. As Maury had done, Cannon also ended up redesigning the classification system of the spectra and developed the Harvard Classification Scheme, which constitutes the basis of the system used nowadays.

Although some of Pickering’s female staff were astronomy graduates, their wages were similar to those of unskilled workers. They usually earned between 25 and 50 cents per hour, more than a factory worker but less than a clerical one.”

~ Wikipedia

From all the stories, one of my personal favorites belongs to Henrietta Swan Leavitt. Pickering had tasked Levitt to study variable stars. What she discovered became an early standard that helped future astronomers.

"… Leavitt noted thousands of variable stars in images of the Magellanic Clouds. In 1908 she published her results in the Annals of the Astronomical Observatory of Harvard College, noting that a few of the variables showed a pattern: brighter ones appeared to have longer periods. After further study, she confirmed in 1912 that the Cepheid variables with greater intrinsic luminosity did have longer periods, and that the relationship was quite close and predictable.

Leavitt used the simplifying assumption that all of the Cepheids within each Magellanic Cloud were at approximately the same distances from the earth, so that their intrinsic brightness could be deduced from their apparent brightness (as measured from the photographic plates) and from the distance to each of the clouds. “Since the variables are probably at nearly the same distance from the Earth, their periods are apparently associated with their actual emission of light, as determined by their mass, density, and surface brightness.”

Her discovery is known as the “period-luminosity relationship”: The logarithm of the period is linearly related to the star’s average, intrinsic luminosity (which is defined as a logarithm of the amount of power radiated by the star in the visible spectrum). In Leavitt’s words, taken from her study of 1,777 variable stars recorded on Harvard’s photographic plates, “a straight line can be readily drawn among each of the two series of points corresponding to maxima and minima, thus showing that there is a simple relation between the brightness of the [Cepheid] variable and their periods”.


The period-luminosity relationship for Cepheids made them the first “standard candle” in astronomy, allowing scientists to compute the distances to galaxies too remote for stellar parallax observations to be useful. One year after Leavitt reported her results, Ejnar Hertzsprung determined the distance of several Cepheids in the Milky Way, and with this calibration the distance to any Cepheid could be accurately determined.

Cepheids were soon detected in other galaxies, such as Andromeda (notably by Edwin Hubble in 1923–24), and they became an important part of the evidence that “spiral nebulae” are actually independent galaxies located far outside of our own Milky Way. Thus, Leavitt’s discovery helped to settled the “Great Debate” on whether the Universe was larger than the Milky Way, and thus changed our picture of the Universe forever.

The accomplishments of the American astronomer Edwin Hubble, who established that the Universe is expanding, were also made possible by Leavitt’s groundbreaking research. “If Henrietta Leavitt had provided the key to determine the size of the cosmos, then it was Edwin Powell Hubble who inserted it in the lock and provided the observations that allowed it to be turned,” wrote David H. and Matthew D.H. Clark in their book Measuring the Cosmos. To his credit, Hubble himself often said that Leavitt deserved the Nobel Prize for her work. Gösta Mittag-Leffler of the Swedish Academy of Sciences tried to nominate her for that prize in 1924, only to learn that she had died of cancer three years earlier (the Nobel Prize is not awarded posthumously).”

~ Wikipedia

I highly recommend reading, “Miss Levitt’s Stars” by George Johnson if you would like to take your experience beyond Wikipedia <3 

But don’t just stop there… all of these women deserve your curiosity. if not to learn more about their lives, then to learn about the science they loved.

fandomdebunker:

The rumor that Jensen Ackles covered an Adam Lambert song has been DEBUNKED.

This rumor originates from various youtube videos claiming that Jensen performed a cover of “Runnin” by Adam Lambert.  The earliest example appears to be this version uploaded by youtube user Sovocraine on January 22nd, 2013.

However, this has since been addressed by Clif Kosterman, Jensen and Jared’s bodyguard, in this tweet:

image

(x)

We consider Clif a reliable source on this matter. (As ever, please feel free to contact us if we missed anything!)

Notes

  • The supposed cover appears to be the original version of “Runnin” slowed down in order to make the pitch lower, and does not sound like Jensen’s voice
  • You can hear Jensen singing “Angeles” here to compare.

clearing up fake covers

  • Track Name

    Runnin'

  • Artist

    Jensen Ackles

imjusttalking:

Just a little reminder that Jensen Ackles can sing…

Jensen Ackles - Runnin’ (Adam Lambert cover)

except that’s not Jensen Ackles’ voice. that’s still Adam Lambert’s voice but someone lowered the pitch using a digital app post production to make it seem like it’s jensen ackles voice. if you compare it to the original track, it is obvious it’s still Adam ‘s voice.the same phrasing the same licks. sorry boo. you tried though. this has been debunked for ages. i can’t believe ppl still fall for it.

gtann:

I LOVE LOVE LOVE Sophia Bush. Definitely one of my favorite actresses. This is a post she made

Thank you Google for taking a stand on the right side of history. As the Olympic Charter reads, “The practice of sport is a human right. Every individual must have the possibility of practising sport, without discrimination of any kind and in the Olympic spirit, which requires mutual understanding with a spirit of friendship, solidarity and fair play.” Russia. We are watching. And the discriminatory practices that your government has made legal will not survive in this world. We will not stand silent in the face of hate. To our #LGBTQ brothers and sisters out there, we stand with you. #LoveIsLove#WithoutDiscriminationOfAnyKind #Olympics#Equality #Sochi ❤️

And when a lot of people were making very rude comments on her photos, this was her response


sophiabush
 

@clay-—— @hannah-——- how sad your existence must be that you care more about recognition of your religion that you do about the recognition of actual human beings. People. Whose hearts beat blood just like yours. The world is beautiful because it is diverse. Because there are so many religions — that are supposed to teach us to love, not hate — for all of us to study and learn from. So many cultures to open our eyes and teach is about the ways in which we are all so similar, even if we live in dramatically different ways. How small your hearts must be to call acknowledging the human condition “wrong.” And what of your “love thy neighbor” doctrine? You’ve clearly missed the point of it all. Feel free to take your bigotry elsewhere. It’s not welcome on my feed. Not now. Not ever. I believe in #equality. For ALL.

And more

sophiabush

@hannah———— if you are more concerned with Christmas banners on the internet than standing up against the beating and torture of human beings on this earth, I suggest you take a moment to look within your heart. Because it certainly seems like you are judging what’s “valuable.” And what is more valuable than human life? #loveislove - and if you don’t believe that, ask yourself why. And please take your statements of inequality for all elsewhere. #done

she’s an amazing woman. well-rounded, intelligent and a great passionate advocate to her causes.

swoopswoopis:

xtinsj answered to your post “Guys?”

modern day non-canon Cherik Divorce & reunion. I would pls like an angsty Modern AU Divorce fics but w/ a romantic happy ending. TY!

Dear god, I made this one a tad longer than the last. I could really sink my teeth into something like this. Hope it’s what you wanted!

——

It’s only one night, Charles, I’m sure you can manage,” Raven insisted for the tenth time over the phone. It’s not even like she knew what really happened, no one did. Charles couldn’t bring himself to admit the real reason for the divorce, so everyone assumed it was some big argument or blow out from them finally realising that they were incompatible. It’d been over a year since he’d seen his ex-husband and as much as he wanted to attend his sister’s party, he really didn’t want to see Erik.

“Why did you even invite him?” It sounded petty even as he said it but if there was anyone left in his life he could truly be himself with, it was her.

The silence was filled with her eye-roll that he could practically hear down the line. “You know why. You may have cut him out of your life but we work together. I actually like him when he’s not – y’know – barking orders, being an ass.” 

Charles pinched his nose. “I thought I got you in the divorce.”

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Awww thank you so much for writing this!!

This is giving me all the feels!

I’ve been craving some Modern AU Non-Canon divorce & then reconciliation fics lately and i’m surprised that there are so very few of them in short fics or even in long form fanfics.

so ty for answering my prompt! <3 <3 <3

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